Drinking Water Survey Annex I

Preface | Introduction | Summary |Survey Results | Annex1

Annex I

Estimation of Sample Size

The sample size was estimated using the formula:

Where

n is the required sample size for the rarest indicator

Za/2 is the factor to achieve (1-a) per cent level of confidence

p is the estimated or predicted rate for the rarest indicator

deff is the design effect

(1+r) is the factor necessary to raise the sample size by r per cent for non-response, and

d is the margin of error to be tolerated

The parameters selected for estimation of the sample size is summarized below:

Factor to achieve the 95 per cent level of confidence (Za/2) = 1.96

Predicted rate for the key indicator (p) = 0.50

Design effect (deff) = 2.00

Factor necessary to raise the sample size by 4 per cent for non-response (1+r) = 1.04

Margin of error to be tolerated, 5 per cent (d) = 0.05

Under these assumptions, the required sample size (n) turns out to be 799 » 800 households.

This is the number of households required for each domain to estimate key indicators with a margin of error of 5 percentage points.

Since the estimates are required for Kathmandu rural and Kathmandu urban separately, the total sample size would be 800 x 2 = 1600 households.

Required sample size derived from the above formula may not be adequate for the analysis at subgroup level, such as estimation by major caste/ethnicity, type of house etc. Hence, 400 additional households were added to the total sample size derived, which makes a total of 2000 sample households for the survey.

The census 2001 result shows that 69 per cent households in Kathmandu district are urban area. Considering the fact, the additional 400 households were distributed in urban areas of Kathmandu so that there would be 1200 households in urban areas and 800 households in rural areas. However, the proportionality of urban/rural households still do not meet and hence, the sample weight is necessary to estimate indicators in aggregate level for Kathmandu.

Sample Allocation

The primary sampling units (PSUs) were sub-wards in Kathmandu Metropolitan City and wards in Kirtipur Municipality and rural areas of Kathmandu. The corresponding numbers of households in each area were taken from Population Census 2001 results as a sampling frame.

It was decided to select 1200 households in urban areas (1000 in Kathmandu Metropolitan City and 200 in Kirtipur Municipality) and 800 in rural areas of Kathmandu. The rational for allocation of 200 households in Kirtipur Municipality is based on the fact that if proportionality maintains, the sample allocation in Kirtipur will be very low.

Since 50 households in each segment were planned to enumerate, this leads total number of segments to be selected comes to 40 (2000/50). Accordingly, 20 segments for Kathmandu Metropolitan City, 4 for Kirtipur Municipality and 16 for rural Kathmandu were distributed.

The PSUs in each area were selected by using PPS sampling technique. Within each selected PSU of Kathmandu Metropolitan City, one street was selected randomly from which 50 households were taken for the interview. The street map prepared by the Kathmandu Metropolitan City was used for the purpose. In case of not having 50 households in selected street, the adjoining street was used for the survey.

In Kirtipur Municipality and rural areas of Kathmandu, 50 households from each selected wards were selected for the interviewed. The starting point for selection of households was set at north east corner of the ward boundary.

Sampling Weight

To maintain the proportionality of sample households with actual households in urban and rural areas of Kathmandu, the sample weight was developed. The sample weight was estimated using the following expression:

Sample weight for domain i, = Pi/pi

Where, Pi is the proportion of the total households in domain i compared to the total households in Kathmandu, and

pi is the proportion of the sampled households in domain i compared to the total households sampled in Kathmandu with complete interviewed.

Using this expression the sample weight for Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Kirtipur Municipality and rural Kathmandu are estimated as 1.2928, 0.4030 and 0.7832 respectively.

Annex II

Selected Sample Points

1. Kathmandu Metropolitan City

SN

Ward No.

Block

Street Name Locality Name

1

3

8

Khadeshwor Marg Basundhara

2

4

11

Deepjyoti Marg Dhumbarahi

3

6

3

Ananya Marg Saraswati Nagar

4

7

2

Sabhakti Marg Shiphal

5

7

17

Tusal Marg Kumarigal

6

9

13

Ramchandra Marg Batishputali

7

10

25

Pragati Galli Sankhamool

8

13

8

Putali Bagaincha Marg Tahachal

9

14

8

Barpipal Galli Kuleshwor

10

15

8

Janasewa Marg Chhauni

11

16

6

Laguthi Hiti Galli Nayabazar

12

16

22

Sudama Marg Nayabazar

13

19

7

Dekwa Galli – 2 Maruhiti

14

23

10

Nawahi Marg – 1 Yangal

15

29

8

Gairabasti Galli Kapoordhara

16

31

5

Tu Galli Putali Sadak

17

33

5

Mayur Marg (Shurti) Gyaneshwor

18

34

7

Kalki Pushpa Marg Milan Chowk, Baneshwor

19

35

1

Trishul Galli Mahadev Chaur

20

35

11

Shri Ganesh Marga Koteshwor, Tinkune



 2. Kirtipur Municipality:

SN Ward No. Tole Name

21

1

Thambahal

22

4

Maanou Tole (Kushicha Tole)

23

11

Sahidpath Tole (Panga)

24

16

Na Gaun

 3. Rural Areas of Kathmandu:

SN Ward No. VDC Name

25

6

Balambu

26

9

Budhanilkantha

27

5

Daanchi

28

1

Dharmasthali

29

2

Gonggabu

30

9

Gonggabu

31

6

Jitpurphedi

32

3

Jorpati

33

7

Jorpati

34

3

Kapan

35

7

Mahadevthan

36

3

Matatirtha

37

7

Nayapati

38

9

Satungal

39

8

Sitapaila

40

6

Tinthana

 

Annex III

Questionnaire

1.             Introductory Information

1.             Place of residence              ……………………….

2.             Place name                          ……………………….

3.             Ward No                              ……………………….

4.             House SN                            ……………………….

5.             Household SN                   ……………………….

6.             Respondent’s name          ……………………….

7.             Interviewer’s name           ……………………….

8.             Interview date                    ……………………….

2.             Household Information

1.             Full name of the household head                 ……………………..

2.             Caste/ethnicity of the household head      ……………………..

3.             Sex of the household head:

1  Male

2  Female

4.             Educational level of the household head  ……………………..

5.             Number of household members

Total: ________ Male: ________  Female: ________

 

6.             Type of house use by the household:

1  Permanent

2  Semi-permanent

3 Temporary

4 Others

7.             What is the ownership of the housing unit used by the household?

1  Own

2  Rented

3  Others

8.             What is the main source of fuel for cooking?

1  Kerosene

2  LP Gas

3  Gobar Gas

4  Wood

5  Guintha/Goraha

6  Others

9. Does your house where you are currently living have sewage facility?

1  Yes

2  No

 

10.  What is the type of the toilet use by the household members?

1  Flush connected with sewage

2  Flush connected with septic tank

3  Simple connected with sewage

4  Simple connected with septic tank

5  Simple no drainage

6  No toilet

11. What are the different sources of water available in your housing premises (multiple responses)?

1  Pipeline

2  Tube-well/Borehole

3  Well/Kuwa

4  Nothing

12. Does your dwelling have water reservoir tank for water storage?

1  Yes

2  No

If yes, capacity of water tank in liter:  ________

 

13. What is the main source of drinking water for your household?

1  Private piped line

2  Private tube well/borehole

3 Private well/kuwa

4  Public tap

5  Public stone tap

6  Public tube well/borehole

7  Public well/kuwa

8  Mul ko pani

9  Neighbor’s private tap

10  Neighbor’s tube well/borehole

11  Neighbor’s well/kuwa

12  Tanker water

13  Mineral water

14 Others

14. How much time does it take to fetch water (including travel time for a single trip) in minute? ________

(Write 0 if water source is within the household premises)

15. On an average, how much water is consumed by your household in a day (in liters)?

(Note: Water may be from any sources)

a. For preparation of  food and drinking: ________

b.For other purposes: ________

c. Total: ________

16. On an average, how much water is needed for your household in a day (in liters)?

a. For preparation of  food and drinking: ________

b. For other purposes: ________

c. Total: ________

17. What do you do to make water drinkable (multiple responses)?

1  Boil

2  Filter

3  Use purification liquid/tablet

4  Cover water vessel

5  Clean water source/tap

6  Use SODIS

7  Use uro guard

8  Use mineral water

9  Nothing

10  Others

Ask questions from 18 to 25 to only those households who have pipeline connection in their household premises.

18. How is the water supply situation distributed by pipeline for your household in different seasons?

In dry season:

1  Sufficient

2  Insufficient

Other seasons

1  Sufficient

2  Insufficient

If sufficient in both seasons, go to Q.20

19.If not sufficient, how many months do your household get water supply by the pipeline during the last 12 months?   ________

20.How many days water is available in a week? ________

21.How many hours on an average water is available in a day when water is supplied? ________

22.Do you feel any problem in current water distribution system?

1  Yes

2  No

If no, go to Q.N. 25.

23.If yes, what are the major problems (Up to 3 responses)?

1. __________________________________________________

2. __________________________________________________

3. __________________________________________________

24.How can these problems be solved (Up to 3 responses)?

1. __________________________________________________

2. __________________________________________________

3. __________________________________________________

25.How much are you paying as water tariff in a month?

Rs. _______

26.If your household gets enough water as per your requirement for the whole year, how much are you willing to pay for water in a month?

Rs. _______

27.At the end, I would like to ask you about the household facilities you have in your household.

What are the facilities you have in your household as mentioned below?

Facilities 1  Yes

2   No

If yes, write numbers
a. Electricity
b. Radio
c. TV
d. Telephone
e. Mobile phone
f. Computer
g. Motorbike
h. Car
i. Washing machine

 

Annex IV

Interviewers and data entry operators

Interviewers

1. Mr. Ana Raj Tiwari

2. Mr. Anjani Kumar Pokharel

3. Mr. Diwakar Sapkota

4. Mr. Keshar Bahadur Karkee

5. Mr. Prakash Pokharel

6. Mr. Prakash Poudel

Data Entry Operators

1. Ms. Shobha Nainabasti

2. Ms. Srijana Suwal