Agriculture Monograph Preface and Contents


PREFACE

Agriculture is the key economic activity and a source of livelihood for the majority of the population, thus a program of annual survey supplemented by a decennial census to establish changes in structure is a matter of major concern.

In recognition of the importance of improving and expanding the statistical base to provide for effective planning and policy making, Nepal has been conducting decennial census of agriculture since 1961/62.  This Agricultural Census Monograph presents a bird’s eye view of the findings of the National Census of Agriculture – 2001/02 in all major aspects of agricultural activities.

The reference period for the complete count of agricultural holdings and total area of the holdings was 2001 as it was collected along with the listing operation of the Population Census 2001. The reference period for the rest of the characteristics of the holdings such as livestock and poultry counts, tenure of holdings, area of parcels, etc., was at the time of enumeration which was conducted from January to June, 2002.  Comparability and availability of data has restricted analysis since 1961/62 to few variables only. In order to access the growth and development of agriculture in Nepal, most of the comparative analysis presented in this monograph is between 1991/92 and 2001/02 agricultural census data.

As in the previous censuses, attempts have been made to adhere to the concepts and definitions recommended by the FAO so that there is comparability of data between censuses and internationally too. As per the local and international requirements, few new items of information have been included in the census which was not gathered in the past.  Aspects such as, soil type, soil color and food sufficiency/insufficiency etc. have been incorporated in the analysis for the first time.

There are 17 chapters in this report representing the different aspects in agriculture.  Chapter 1 provides a general perspective on the total households and population linking them to the farm population and holdings.  Chapter 2 to 5 present analysis on agricultural structure such as size of holding, land fragmentation, land tenure and land use. Analyses of temporary and permanent crops are dealt in Chapters 6 and 7. Chapters 8 and 9 examines the use of are agricultural inputs. Chapter 11 presents livestock and poultry population scenario. Chapter 12 deals on ancillary activities of agricultural holding and Chapters 10, 13 and 14 discuss other facilities available to the holding in terms of equipment, buildings and credit. Chapter 15 provides insight to disparity in holdings and operating pattern of holdings of male and female holders. The last two chapters analyze socio-economic characteristics of the farm population and farm labor.

This Monograph has been prepared with the combined effort of Mr. R. C. Das, Retired Senior Officer of the Bureau and Consultants from the Asian Development Bank who were involved at the initial stage of analysis. I would like to express my sincere thanks to them. My sincere thanks also go to Deputy Director General, Mr. Rabi Singh for his overall supervision and hard work put in by Statistical Officers Mr. S.L. Shrestha and Mr. R. Dhital. Thanks are also due to Computer Assistants Mr. L.N. Pandey and Mr. D.N. Shrestha for their computer works in preparation of this Monograph.

June, 2006 Tunga S. Bastola
Kathmandu, Nepal Director General
  Central Bureau of Statistics
 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 : BACKGROUND

1.1 Land area

1.2 Population

1.3 Population density

1.4 Population growth

1.5 Usual activity of population 10 years old and over

1.6 Employment rate

1.7 Usual activity of employed persons

1.8 Number of households

1.9 Number of agricultural holdings

1.10 Farm population

CHAPTER 2 : SIZE OF HOLDING

2.1 Land holdings

2.2 Average size of holding

2.3 Farm size distribution

2.4 Land distribution

CHAPTER 3 : LAND FRAGMENTATION

3.1 Number of parcels

3.2 Parcel size

3.3 Parcels per holding

3.4 Parcel number distribution

3.5 Comparison of small and large holdings

CHAPTER 4 :LAND TENURE

4.1 Holdings by tenure

4.2 Area by tenure of land

4.3 Conditions of rent

CHAPTER 5 : LAND USE

5.1 Land use types

5.2 Arable land

5.3 Percent of land for cultivation

5.4 Land use pattern in small and large holdings

5.5 Wet and dry land

CHAPTER 6 : TEMPORARY CROPS

6.1 Land under temporary crops

6.2 Composition of temporary crops

6.3 Rice

6.4 Wheat

6.5 Maize

6.6 Other cereal grains

6.7 Legumes

6.8 Tubers

6.9 Cash Crops

6.10 Oilseeds

6.11 Spices

6.12 Vegetables

6.13 Cropping practices

6.14 Cropping intensity

CHAPTER 7 : PERMANENT CROPS

7.1 Permanent crops grown

7.2 Compact and scattered crops

7.3 Ecological belt comparisons

7.4 Development regions comparisons

7.5 Comparison of small and large holdings

7.6 Productive/non-productive trees

7.7 Thatch, fodder trees and bamboo

CHAPTER 8 : IRRIGATION

8.2 Concept of Irrigation

8.2 Land holdings with access to irrigation

8.3 Land under irrigation

8.4 Source of irrigation

CHAPTER 9 : USE OF INPUTS

9.1 Agricultural inputs

9.2 Growers using chemical fertilizers

9.3 Growers using improved seeds

9.4 Growers using pesticides

9.5 Rice

9.6 Wheat

9.7 Maize

9.8 Other crops

9.9 Comparison of small and large holdings

CHAPTER 10 : AGRICULTURAL EQUIPMENT

10.1 Agricultural equipment

10.2 Type of equipment

10.3 Geographical distribution of equipment

10.4 Comparisons of small and large holdings

CHAPTER 11 : LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY

11.1 Livestock population

11.2 Holdings with livestock and poultry

11.3 Cattle

11.4 Chaunri

11.5 Buffaloes

11.6 Large livestock in milk

11.7 Small livestock

11.8 Poultry

CHAPTER 12 : ANCILLARY ACTIVITIES

12.1 Ancillary activities

12.2 Forestry activities

12.3 Compact forest area

12.4 Holdings with forest trees

12.5 Area of woodland and forest

12.6 Distribution of Forest Trees

12.7 Fishery activities

CHAPTER 13 : NON-RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

13.1 Non-residential building

13.2 Holdings with non-residential buildings

CHAPTER 14 : HOLDINGS WITH CREDIT

14.1 Agricultural Credit

14.2 Holdings with credit

14.3 Regional comparisons

14.4 Source of credit

CHAPTER 15 : CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL HOLDERS AND AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS

15.1 Characteristics of agricultural holders

15.2 Sex of holder

15.3 Age of holder

15.4 Size of holding per holder

15.5 Headship of household

15.6 Hired manager

15.7 Ethnicity

15.8 Ethnicity in ecological belt

15.9 Ethnicity in development region

15.10 Legal status of holding/holder

15.11 Main use of produce of holding

15.12 Sufficiency of agricultural produce

15.13 Number of months insufficient

15.14 Manner of coping with insufficiency

15.15 Soil type and color

15.16 Uncultivable area due to flood/soil erosion

CHAPTER 16 : FARM POPULATION

16.1 Information on farm population

16.2 Farm population

16.3 Age and sex structure

16.4 Sex ratio

16.5 Household size

16.6 Comparison of small and large holdings

16.7 Some characteristics of districts

CHAPTER 17 : FARM LABOUR

17.1 Usual activity of farm population

17.2 Labour force status of farm population

17.3 Employment and unemployment rates

17.4 Employment of agricultural workers

17.5 Paid workers at sub-national level

17.6 Paid workers by size of holding

17.7 Number of permanent agricultural workers

Appendix A : Sample Specifications – Districts

Appendix B : National Sample Census of Agriculture 2002

AGRICULTURAL CENSUS, 2001/02 AT A GLANCE (Selected indicators)

Final Map